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"Meditation" also refers to the seventh of the eight limbs of Yoga in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, a step called dhyāna in Sanskrit.Meditation refers to a mental or spiritual state that may be attained by such practices, and also refers to the practice of that state.This article mainly focuses on meditation in the broad sense of a type of discipline, found in various forms in many cultures, by which the practitioner attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "thinking" mind) into a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state.The terms "meditative practice" and "meditation" are mostly used here in this broad sense.The 8th century Jain philosopher Haribhadra also contributed to the development of Jain yoga through his Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, which compares and analyzes various systems of yoga, including Hindu, Buddhist and Jain systems.Jain meditation and spiritual practices system were referred to as salvation-path.Western Christian meditation contrasts with most other approaches in that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or action and requires no specific posture.Western Christian meditation progressed from the 6th century practice of Bible reading among Benedictine monks called Lectio Divina, i.e. Its four formal steps as a "ladder" were defined by the monk Guigo II in the 12th century with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio (i.e. Western Christian meditation was further developed by saints such as Ignatius of Loyola and Teresa of Avila in the 16th century.
Scientific reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more clearly define the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results of their studies be made clearer.regulation of attention is the central commonality across the many divergent methods"•"We define meditation... repetitively practiced for the purpose of attaining a subjective experience that is frequently described as very restful, silent, and of heightened alertness, often characterized as blissful" As early as 1971, Claudio Naranjo noted that "The word 'meditation' has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation is." There remains no definition of necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one study recently noted a "persistent lack of consensus in the literature" and a "seeming intractability of defining meditation".In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are often used imprecisely to designate broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures and traditions.Since the 19th century, it has spread from its Asian origins to Western cultures where it is commonly practiced in private and business life.Meditation is under psychological, neurological, and cardiovascular research to define its possible health effects.
Mantra chanting can be done either loudly or silently in mind.